Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. Originally developed by the Linde – Union Carbide Company. It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc, zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride, and other compounds.
When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and provides a current path between the electrode and the workpiece. This thick layer of flux completely covers the molten metal thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and fumes that are a part of the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process.